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Access to Care

Martin AB. (2013). Rural populations and health: determinants, disparities, and solutions. J Rural Health. 2013 Jul. DOI:10.111/jrh.12036.

Mitchell J, Bennett K, Brock-Martin A.(2013). Edentulism in high poverty rural counties.(2013). J Rural Health. 2013 Winter:29(1):30-8.

Runkle JD, Brock-Martin A, Karmaus W, Svendsen ER.(2012). Secondary surge capacity: a framework for understanding long-term access to primary care for medically vulnerable populations in disaster recovery. Am J Public Health. 2012 Dec;102(1)e24-32.

Probst JC, Bellinger JD, Walsemann KM, Hardin J, Glover SH. (2011). Higher risk of death in rural blacks and whites than urbanites is related to lower incomes, education, and health coverage. Health Aff (Millwood).2011 Oct;30(10):1872-9

Laditka JN, Laditka SB, Probst JC. (2009). Health care access in rural areas: evidence that hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions in the United States may increase with the level of rurality. Health Place. 15(3):731-40. Epub 2009 Jan 10.

Peterson LE, Dodoo M, Bennett KJ, Bazemore A, Phillips RL Jr. (2008). Nonemergency medicine-trained physician coverage in rural emergency departments. Ÿž  2008 Spring;24(2):183-8..

Probst JC, Moore CG, Powell MP, Martin AB.(2007). Continuity of health insurance coverage and perceived health at age 40.. Med Care Res Review. Med Care Res Rev. 2008 Aug;65(4):450-77. Epub 2008 May 19.

Probst JC, Laditka SB, Wang J-Y, Johnson AO.(2007). Effects of residence and race on burden of travel for care: cross sectional analysis of the 2001 US National Household Travel Survey. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007 Mar 9;7:40.

Powell, M.P., S.H. Glover, J.C. Probst, and S.B. Laditka (2005). "Barriers Associated with the Delivery of Medicare Reimbursed Diabetes Self-Management Education." The Diabetes Educator: 31(6):890-9.

Steyer TE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME. (2005). The effect of race and residence on the receipt of childhood immunizations: 1993-2001. Vaccine 23(12):1464-70, February 10, 2005.

Glover S, Moore CG, Probst JC, Samuels ME (2004). Disparities in access to care among rural minority adults. J Rural Health, 20(3):193-205.

Probst JC, Moore CG, Glover SH, Samuels ME (2004). Person and place: the compounding effects of race/ethnicity and rurality on health. American Journal of Public Health 94(10): 1695-703.

Bennett KJ, Baxley E, Probst JC. (2003). The impact of resident physician coverage on emergency department visits in South Carolina. South Med J. 96(12):1195-202.

AIDS/HIV

Weissman S, Duffus WA, Vyavaharkar M, Samantapudi AV, Shull KA, Stephens TG, Chakraborty H. (2014). Defining the rural HIV epidemic: correlations of 3 definitions--South Carolina, 2005-2011. J Rural Health. 2014 Summer;30(3):275-83

Phillips KD, Moneyham L, Thomas SP, Gunther M, Vyavaharkar M. (2011). Social context of rural Women with HIV/AIDS. Issues ment Health Nurs. 32(6):374-81.

Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L,Murdaugh C, Tavakoli A. (2011). Factors associated with quality of life among rural women with HIV disease. AIDS Behav. 2011 Mar 5. [Epub ahead of print].

Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Corwin S, Tavakoli A, Saunders R, Annang L. (2011). HIV-disclosure, social support, and depression among HIV-infected African American women living in the rural southeastern United States. AIDS Educ Prev. 2011 Feb;23(1):78-90.

Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Corwin S, Saunders R, Annang L, Tavakoli A. (2010). Relationships between stigma, social support, and depression in HIV-infected African American women living in the rural Southeastern United States. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2010 Mar-Apr;21(2):144-52.

Hilfinger Messias DK, Moneyham L, Vyavaharkar M, Murdaugh C, Phillips KD. (2009). Embodied work: insider perspectives on the work of HIV/AIDS peer counselors. Health Care Women Int. 30(7):572-94.

Olatosi BA, Probst JC, Stoskopf CH, Martin AB, Duffus WA. (2009). Patterns of engagement in care by HIV-infected adults: South Carolina, 2004-2006.. AIDS. 2009 Mar 27;23(6):725-30.

Vyavaharkar MV, Moneyham L, Corwin S. (2008). Health care utilization: the experiences of rural HIV-positive African American women. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 19(1):294-306.

Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Tavakoli A, Phillips KD, Murdaugh C, Jackson K, Meding G. (2007). Social support, coping, and medication adherence among HIV-positive women with depression living in rural areas of the southeastern United States. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 21(9):667-80.

Moneyham L, Murdaugh C, Phillips K, Jackson K, Tavakoli A, Boyd M, Jackson N, Vyavaharkar M. (2005). Patterns of risk of depressive symptoms among HIV-positive women in the southeastern United States. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2005 Jul-Aug;16(4):25-38.

Boyd MR, Moneyham L, Murdaugh C, Phillips KD, Tavakoli A, Jackwon K, Jackson N, Vyavaharkar M. (2005). A peer-based substance abuse intervention for HIV+ rural women: a pilot study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 19(1):10-7.

Behavioral Health

Wang JY, Probst JC, Moore CG, Martin AB, Bennett KJ. (2011). Place of origin and violent disagreement among Asian American families: analysis across five States. J Immigr Minor Health. 13(4):635-46.

Johnson AO, Mink MD, Harun N, Moore CG, Martin AB, Bennett KJ. (2008). Violence and drug use in rural teens: national prevalence estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. J Sch Health. 78(10):554-61.

Mink M, Wang JY, Bennett KJ, Moore CG, Powell MP, Probst JC. (2008). Early alcohol use, rural residence, and adult employment. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 69(2):266-74.

Probst JC, Laditka SB, Moore CG, Harun N, Powell MP, Baxley EG. Rural-urban differences in depression prevalence: implications for family medicine.  Fam Med, 2006 Oct;38(9):653-60.

Patterson PD, Moore CG, Shinogle JA, Probst JC (2004). Obesity and physical inactivity in rural America. J Rural Health 20(2):151-59.

Child and Adolescent Health

Radcliff E, Delmelle E, Kirby RS, Laditka SB, Correia J, Cassell CH.(2015). Factors Associated with Travel Time and Distance to Access Hospital Care Among Infants with Spina Bifida. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2015 Oct 20.

Hale N, Probst J, Robertson A. (2015) Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions. J Community Health. 2015 Oct 29. PubMed PMID: 26516019.

Wigfall LT, Bellinger JD, Kerr JC, Abara W, Banister C. Messersmith A, Spiryda L, Williams EM, Pirisi L, Glover SH. (2010) Initiation of Sexual Intercourse in Adolescence as a Risk Factor for Human Papillomvirs (HPV) Infection Among Sexually Active College-Aged Females. J of Adolescent and Family Health, 5(1):38-47.

Glover S, Piper CN, Williams E, Bennett KJ, Thompson W, Annang L, Charlemagne S, Hassan R. (2010). Preventable asthma episodes among urban/rural children and adolescents: A comparative study. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice. 4(2):42-50.

Piper CN, Glover S, Elder K, Baek JD, Wilkinson L. (2010). Disparities in access to care among asthmatic children in relation to race and socioeconomic status. J Child Health Care. 14(3):271-9. Epub 2010 Jun17.

Piper CN, Elder K, Glover S, Baek JD, Murph K. (2010). isparities between asthma management and insurance type among children. J Natl Med Assoc.

Johnson AO, Mink MD, Harun N, Moore CG, Martin AB, Bennett KJ. (2008). Violence and drug use in rural teens: national prevalence estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. J Sch Health. 2008 Oct;78(10):554-61.

Probst JC, Wang J-Y, Martin AB, Moore, CG, Paul BM, Samuels ME.(2008). Potentially violent disagreements and parenting stress among American Indian/Alaska Native families: analysis across seven states. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2008, Jul; 12 Suppl 1:91-102.

Moore, CG, Probst JC, Tompkins M, Cuffe S, Martin AB.(2007). The prevalence of violent disagreements in US families: effects of residence, race/ethnicity, and parental stress. Pediatrics, eb;119 Suppl 1:S68-76.

Probst JC, Moore CG, Baxley EG. (2005). Update: Health insurance and utilization of care among rural adolescents. Journal of Rural Health, Fall 2005, pp. 279-287.

Steyer TE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME. (2005). The effect of race and residence on the receipt of childhood immunizations: 1993-2001. Vaccine 23(12):1464-70, February 10, 2005.

Diabetes

Trivedi T, Liu J, Probst JC, Martin AB. (2013). The metabolic syndrome: are rural residents at increased risk? J Rural Health. 2013 Winter;29(2):188-97.

Hale NL, Probst JC, Liu J, Martin AB, Bennett KJ, Glover S. (2012). Postpartum screening for diabetes among Medicaid-eligible South Carolina women with gestational diabetes. Womens Health Issues. 2012 Mar;22(2):e163-9.

Hale N, Bennett KJ, Probst JC. (2010). Diabetes care and outcomes: disparities across rural America. J Community Health. 35(4):365-7.

Powell, M.P., S.H. Glover, J.C. Probst, and S.B. Laditka (2005). Barriers Associated with the Delivery of Medicare Reimbursed Diabetes Self-Management Education. The Diabetes Educator: 31(6):890-9.

Arch G. Mainous, III, PhD, Dana E. King, MD, David R. Garr, MD and William S. Pearson, MHA. (2004).  Race, rural residence, and control of diabetes and hypertension. Annals of Family Medicine 2:563-568. November-December 2004.

Health Care Services

Chen BK, Hibbert J, Cheng X and Bennett KJ. (2015) Travel Distance and Sociodemographic Correlates of Potentially Avoidable Emergency Department Visits in California, 2006-2010: An Observational Study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 14(1): 30.

Hale NL, Smith M, Hardin J, Brock-Martin A. (2015) Rural populations and early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment services: challenges and opportunities for local public health departments.. Am J Public Health. 2015 Apr;105 Suppl 2:S330-6.

Schuller, K, Probst JC, Bennett KJ, Martin AB, Hardin J. (2013) Initial Impact of Medicare's Nonpayment Policy on Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections by Hospital Characteristics, Health Policy, 2013 Dec 5.

Soltis SL, Probst J, Xirasagar S, Martin AB, Smith BH. (2013) Diagnostic and Demographic Differences Between Incarcerated and Nonincarcerated Youth (Ages 6-15) With ADHD in South Carolina. J Atten Disord. 2013 Oct 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Runkle JR, Zhang H, Karmaus W, Brock-Martin A, Svendsen ER.(2013). Long-term impact of environmental public health disaster on health system performance: experiences from the Graniteville, South Carolina chlorine spill. South Med J. 2013 Jan;106(1):74-81.

Bennett KJ, Probst JC, Vyavaharkar M, Glover SH. 2012).( Lower rehospitalization rates among rural Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes. J Rural Health. 2012 Summer;28(3):227-34.

Bennett KJ, Probst JC, Vyavaharkdar M, Glover S. Missing the handoff: post-hospitalization follow-up care among rural Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes. Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:2097. Epub 2012 July 20.

Bellinger JD, Hassan R, Rivers P, Williams E, Glover S. (2010). Specialty care use in US patients with chronic diseases. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010,7(3):975-90.

Davis JR, Wilson S, Brock-Martin A, Glover S, Svendsen S. (2010). The impact of disasters on populations with health and health care disparities. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. 4(1):30-8.

Glover S, Bellinger JD, Bae S, Rivers PA, Singh KP. (2010). Perceived health status and utilization of specialty care: Racial and ethnic disparities in patients with chronic diseases. Health Education Journal. 69(1):95-106.

Diedhiou A, Probst JC, Hardin JW, Martin AB, Xirasagar. (2010). Relationship between presence of a reported medical home and emergency department use among children with asthma. Med Care Res Rev. 2010 Aug;67(4):450-75. Epub 2010 May 4.

Glover S, Xirasagar S, Yunho J, Elder K, Piper C, Pastides H. (2009) A Human Capital Approach to Reduce Health Disparities.Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice. 3(1):1-14.

Probst JC, Laditka JN, Laditka SB. (2009). Association between community health center and rural health clinic presence and county-level hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: an analysis across eight US states. BMC Health Serv Res.;9:134.

Griffin S, Williams A, Brandt H, Glover S. (2009). Participatory evaluation of community-based HPV and cervical cancer prevention and control efforts. Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association. 2009, 105:309-18.

Torres M, Parra-Medina D, Bellinger J, Johnson AO, Probst JC. (2008). Rural hospitals and Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency. J Healthc Manag. 53(2):107-19; discussion 119-20.

Martin AB, Crawford S, Probst JC, Smith G, Saunders RP, Watkins KW, Luchok K. (2007). Medical homes for children with special health care needs: a program evaluation. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 18(4):916-30.

Bennett KJ, Moore CG, Probst JC. (2007). Estimating uncompensated care charges at rural hospital emergency departments.  J Rural Health 2007, 23(3): 258-263.

Probst JC, Laditka SB, Moore CG, Harun N, Powell MP, Baxley EG.(2006).  Rural-urban differences in depression prevalence: implications for family medicine.  Fam Med, 2006 Oct;38(9):653-60.

Steyer TE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME.(2005). The effect of race and residence on the receipt of childhood immunizations: 1993-2001. Vaccine 23(12):1464-70, February 10, 2005.

Laditka SB, Laditka JN, Bennett KJ, Probst JC. (2005). Delivery complications associated with prenatal care access for Medicaid-insured mothers in rural and urban hospitals. J Rural Health. 2005 Spring; 21(2):158-66.

Powell, M.P., S.H. Glover, J.C. Probst, and S.B. Laditka (2005). "Barriers Associated with the Delivery of Medicare Reimbursed Diabetes Self-Management Education." The Diabetes Educator: 31(6):890-9.

Health Information Technology

Mitchell J, Probst JC, Bennett KJ, Glover S, Martin AB, Hardin JW. (2016). Differences in pneumonia treatment between high-minority and low-minority neighborhoods with clinical decision support system implementation. Inform Health Soc Care. 2016 Mar;41(2):128-42.

Mitchell J, Probst J, Brock-Martin A, Bennett K, Glover S, Hardin J. (2014). Association between clinical decision support system use and rural quality disparities in the treatment of pneumonia. J Rural Health. 2014 Spring;30(2):186-95.

Bhasvar GP, Martin AB, Bennett KJ, Thornburg JT. (2014) Evaluating the Health Information Technology Regional Extension Center in South Carolina. Health Policy and Technology, 2014,3(3): 192-199

Bennett KJ. (2013). Rural population estimates: an analysis of a large secondary data set. J Rural Health. 2013 Jun;29(3):233-8.

Martin AB, Probst JC, Shah K, Chenz, Garr D. (2012). Differences in readiness between rural hospitals and primary care providers for telemedicine adoption and implementation: findings from a statewide telemedicine survey. J Rural Health. 2012 Jan;28(1):8-15.

Mitchell, JP., Bennett, K.J., & Probst, J. (2011). Organizational Factors Factors Associated with Health Information Technology Adoption and Utilization Among Home Health/Hospice Agencies. International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics(IJHISI). 2011, 6(3).

Wang JY, Bennett KJ, Probst JC.(2011). Subdividing the digital divide: Differences in internet access and use among tural residents with medical limitations. J Medical Internet Research. 2011 Mar 3:13(1):e25.

Bennett KJ, Steen C. (2010). Electronic medical record customization and the impact upon chart completion rates. Fam Med. 2010, 42(5):338-42.

Bennett KJ, Baxley EG. (2009). The effect of a carve-out advanced access scheduling system on no-show rates. Fam Med. 2010. 41(1):51-6.

Maternal/Perinatal Health

Gallagher A, Liu J, Probst JC, Martin AB, Hall JW.(2013). Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain in rural versus urban dwelling women in South Carolina. J Rural Health. 2013 Winter;29(1):1-11.

Liu JH, Jones SJ, Sun H, Probst JC, Merchant AT, Cavicchia P. (2012). Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: an urban and rural comparison. Child Obes. 2012 Oct;8(5):440-8.

Hale N, Probst JC, Martin AB, Bennett K, Liu J, Glover S. (2011). Variation in Excessive Fetal Growth across Levels of Prenatal Care among Women with Gestational Diabetes. Journal of Primary Care and Community Health. Accepted for publication April 19, 2011.

Ogbuanu CA, Probst JC, Laditka SB, Liu J, Baek JD, Glover S. (2009). Reasons why women do not initiate breastfeeding: A southeastern state study. Women's Health Issues. 19(4):268-78.

Brandt HM, Bellinger JD, Sharpe PA, Hardin JW. (2009). General findings of a population-based HPV telephone survey of women in South Carolina. J of SC Med Assoc. 105(7):263-6.

Laditka SB, Laditka JN, Bennett KJ, Probst JC(2005). Delivery complications associated with prenatal care access for Medicaid-insured mothers in rural and urban hospitals. J Rural Health. 2005 Spring; 21(2):158-66.

Probst JC, Moore CG, Baxley EG. (2005). Update: Health insurance and utilization of care among rural adolescents. Journal of Rural Health, Fall 2005, pp. 279-287.

Obesity/Physical Inactivity

Trivedi T, Liu J, Probst JC, Merchant A, Jhones S, Martin AB. (2015) Obesity and obesity-related behaviors among rural and urban adults in the USA. Rural Remote Health. 2015 Oct-Dec;15(4):3267.

Trivedi T, Liu J, Probst JC, Martin AB. (2013). The metabolic syndrome: are rural residents at increased risk? J Rural Health. 2013 Spring;29(2):188-97.

Liu JH, Jones SJ, Sun H, Probst JC, Merchant AT, Cavicchia P. (2012) Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: an urban and rural comparison. Child Obes. 2012 Oct;8(5):440-8.

Bennett KJ, Probst JC, Pumkam C. (2011).Obesity among working age adults: the role of county-level persistent poverty in rural disparities.. Health Place. Jun 10. [Epub ahead of print].

Davis AM, Bennett KJ, Befort C, Nollen N. (2011). Obesity and related health behaviors among urban and rural children in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. J Pediatr Psychol. 36(6):669-76.

Glover S, Piper CN, Hassan R, Preston G, Wilkinson L, Bowen-Seabrook J, Meyer-Davis B, Williams S. (2011). Dietary, physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors of rural African American South Carolina children. J Natl Med Assoc. 2011 Apr;103(4):300-4.

Kim J, Liu J, Colabianchi N, Pate R.(2010). The effect of perceived and structural neighborhood conditions on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2010. Oct; 164(10):945-42. PMID:20921351.

Liu J, Kim J, Colabianchi N, Ortaglia A, Pate R. (2010).Co-varying patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors and their long-term maintenance among adolescents. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2010; 7:465-474.PMID:20683088.

Liu J, Probst JC, Harun N, Bennett KJ, Torres ME. (2009). Acculturation, physical activity, and obesity among Hispanic adolescents. Ethn Health. 14(5):509-25.

Liu J, Bennett KJ, Harun N, Probst JC. (2008). Urban-rural differences in overweight status and physical inactivity among US children aged 10-17 years. J Rural Health. 24(4):407-15.

Older Americans

Towne SD Jr, Probst JC, Mitchell J, Chen Z. (2015). Poorer Quality Outcomes of Medicare-Certified Home Health Care in Areas With High Levels of Native American/Alaska Native Residents. J Aging Health. 2015 Dec;27(8):1339-57.

Schuller K, Probst J, Hardin J, Bennett KJ.ןžµŸןž ž   (2014). Initial impact of Medicare's nonpayment policy on catheter-associated urinary tract infections by hospital characteristics..ןžµŸןž ž   Health Policy, 115(2): 165 - 171

Bennett KJn Probst JC. (2015). Thirty-Day Readmission Rates Among Dual-Eligible Beneficiaries. J Rural Health. 2015 Aug 24. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12140.

Bennett KJ, Probst JC, Vyavaharkar M, Glover S. (2012). Missing the handoff: post-hospitalization follow-up care among rural Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes. Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:2097. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Bennett KJ, Probst JC, Vyavaharkar M, Glover SH. (2012) Lower rehospitalization rates among rural Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes. J Rural Health. 2012 Summer;28(3):227-34

Laditka, J.N., S.B. Laditka, B. Olatosi, and K.T. Elder (2007). The Health Tradeoff of Rural Residence for Impaired Older Adults: Longer Life, More Impairment. Journal of Rural Health, 23(2), 124-132.

Oral Health

Walker A, Probst JC, Martin AB, Bellinger JD, Merchant A. (2014). Analysis of hospital-based emergency department visits for dental caries in the United States in 2008. J Public Health Dent. 2014 Summer;74(3):188-94.

Martin AB, Hardin J, Veschusio C, Kirby H. Differences in dental service utilization by rural Head Start participants and a comparison group. Differences in dental service utilization by rural children with and without participation in Head Start. Pediatr Dent. 2012 Sep-Oct;34(5):107-11.

Martin AB, Vyavaharkar M, Veschusio C, Kirby H. (2010). Rural-urban differences in dental service utilization among an early childhood population enrolled in South Carolina Medicaid. Matern Child Health J. 2012 Jan;16(1):2013-11

Martin AB, Probst J, Wang JY, Hale N. (2009). Effect of having a personal healthcare provider on access to dental care among children. J Public Health manag Pract. 15(3):191-9.

Liu J, Probst JC, Martin AB, Wang JY, Salinas CF. (2007). Disparities in dental insurance coverage and dental care among US children: the National Survey of Children's Health.. Pediatrics. 2007 Feb;119 Suppl 1:S12-21.

Preventive Health Services

Bellinger JD, Brandt HM, Hardin J, Bynum S, Sharpe P, Jackson D. (2013). The role of family history of cancer on cervical cancer screening behavior in a population-based survey of women in the Southeastern United States. Women Health Iss, 23(4):e197-204.

Bennett KJ, Probst JC, Bellinger JD. (2012). Receipt of cancer screening services: surprising results for some rural minorities. J Rural Health. 2012 Jan;28(1):63-72.

Bennett KJ, Pumkam C, Probst JC. (2011). Rural-urban differences in the location of influenza vaccine administration.. Vaccine. 29(35):5970-7. Epub 2011 Jun 25.

Bennett KJ, Bellinger JD, Probst JC. (2010) Receipt of influenza and pneumonia vaccinations: the dual disparity of rural minorities. J Am Geriatr Soc. 58(10):1896-902.

Wigfall L, Duffus W, Annang L, Richter D, Torres M, Williams E, Glover S. (2009). Pap test and HIV testing behaviors of South Carolina women 18-64 years old. Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association. 105:274-80.

Uninsured

Probst JC, Moore CG, Baxley EG.(2005). Update: Health insurance and utilization of care among rural adolescents. Journal of Rural Health, Fall 2005, pp. 279-287.

Workforce

Probst JC, Baek JD, Laditka SB.( 2010). The relationship between workplace environment and job satisfaction among nursing assistants: findings from a national survey. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 11(4):246-52. Epub 2010 Mar 6.

Probst JC, Baek JD, Laditka SB. (2009). Characteristics and recruitment paths of certified nursing assistants in rural and urban nursing homes. J Rural Health. 2009 Summer;25(3):267-75.